Mars' entire surface was shaped by water

The whole of Mars' surface was shaped by liquid water around four billion years ago, say scientists.

Signs of liquid water had been seen on southern Mars, but the latest findings reveal similar signals in craters in the north of the Red Planet.
The team made their discovery by examining data from instruments on board Europe's Mars Express and Nasa's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

They report the findings in the latest issue of the journal Science.
John Carter, of the University of Paris, led the team of France- and US-based scientists.
"Until now, we had no idea what half Mars was made of in terms of mineral composition," he told BBC News.
Continue reading the main story
We're seeing signals of what were once river beds, small seas and lakes
John Carter University of Paris

"Now, with the Esa and Nasa probes, we have been able to get a mixture of images and spectral information about the composition of the rock."
He explained that these instruments had revealed clay-type minerals called phyllosilicates - "the stuff you would find in mud and in river beds."
"It's not the species of mineral itself that's important," said Dr Carter, "it's more the fact that the minerals contain water.
"This enhances the picture of liquid water on Mars."
Liquid rock
Previously, researchers have seen similar signs of water in the highlands of southern Mars in rocks that are up to four billion years old. But in the northern part of the planet, more recently formed rocks have buried the older geology.
The prevailing theory for why this is, is that a giant object slammed into northern Mars, turning nearly half of the planet's surface into the Solar System's largest impact crater.
The team found the minerals in craters in the northern part of Mars Dr Carter explained that this meant a thick veneer of younger rock covered the older geology, "so the craters are the only way of accessing the older stuff".
But the craters are relatively small and more difficult for the orbiting probes to take measurements from.
"There's also ice and dust coverage in the north of the planet, making it harder to get signals from these craters," said Dr Carter.
The new findings suggest that at least part of the wet period on Mars, that could have been favourable to life, extended into the time between that giant impact and when volcanic and other rocks formed an overlying mantle.
This indicates that, 4.2 billion years ago, the planet was probably altered by liquid water on a global scale.
But Dr Carter said that the findings did not paint a picture of huge Martian oceans.
"It was probably a very dry place," he said. "But we're seeing signals of what were once river beds, small seas and lakes."

The Greatest Secret in Modern History. UFOs and a Solution to the Environmental and Energy Crisis

Friday 25 June 2010, by Ramona Onisor - 149 letture
The Greatest Secret in Modern History
UFOs and a Solution to the Environmental and Energy Crisis
Mercury & Gemini Astronaut, Colonel Gordon Cooper A saucer flew right over [us] and landed out on the dry lakebed. [The cameramen] went out with their cameras towards the UFO. I had a chance to hold [the film] up to the window to look at it. Good close-up shots. There was no doubt in my mind that it was someplace other than on this Earth. — Video interview. Transcribed in Disclosure, Steven M. Greer, MD., ed., pp. 226 - 227.

FAA Division Chief of Accidents and Investigations, John Callahan The UFO was bouncing around the 747....Well, I’ve been involved in a lot of cover-ups with the FAA. When we gave the presentation to the Reagan staff, they had all those people swear that this never happened. But they never had me swear it never happened. I’ve got a videotape. I’ve got the voice tape. I’ve got the reports that were filed. — Video interview and Disclosure, pp. 80 - 85.

Russian Air Force, Space Communications Center, General Vasily Alexeyev They came up with a table with pictures of all the shapes of UFOs that had ever been recorded - about fifty….The study of UFOs may reveal some new forms of energy to us, or at least bring us closer to a solution. — Disclosure, pp. 345 - 347.

Former Director of CIA, Admiral R.H. Hillenkoetter Behind the scenes, high-ranking Air Force officers are soberly concerned about the UFOs. But through official secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to believe the unknown flying objects are nonsense. To hide the facts, the Air Force has silenced its personnel. — The New York Times, Sunday, February 28, 1960: "Air Force Order on ’Saucers’ Cited," p. L30. See also Disclosure, p. 58.
Corporate Manager of Fairchild Industries, Spokesperson for Wernher Von Braun, Dr. Carol Rosin Von Braun [rocket science pioneer] told me [in 1974] the reasons for space-based weaponry were all based on a lie. He said the strategy was that first the Russians, then the terrorists are going to be considered the enemy. The next enemy was asteroids. "The last card is the alien card, and all of it is a lie."….I was at a meeting in Fairchild Industries in the War Room. The conversation [was] about how they were going to antagonize these enemies, and there was going to be a Gulf War. Now this is 1977! — pp. 255 - 259.

More Cover-up: Advanced Technologies Developed from UFOs

US Marine Corps, Captain Bill Uhouse The [flight] simulator was for the extraterrestrial craft they had - a 30 meter one that crashed in Kingman, Arizona, back in 1953. I was inside the actual alien craft for a start-up. There are probably two or three dozen [flying saucers] that we built. — Disclosure, pp. 384, 385.

US Army, Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering, Colonel Thomas E. Bearden Probably 50 inventors have invented [virtually cost-free energy systems]. If we use these systems, we can clean up this biosphere. But the entire structure of science, industry, and the patent office are against you….The more powerful the agency, the more they resort not only to legal, but to extra-legal means to suppress their competition. — Disclosure, pp. 534-542. See also

Disclosure Project, Founder and Director, Steven M. Greer, M.D. The situation is so dire that senior Joint Chiefs of Staff leaders in the Pentagon who I have briefed have no more access to such projects than any other civilian-unless they are on the ’inside.’ The government is really quite outside the loop. We have insiders and scientists who can prove that we do in fact possess energy generation systems capable of completely and permanently replacing all forms of currently used energy generation and transportation systems. Every single person who is concerned about the environment and the human future should call for urgent hearings to allow these technologies to be disclosed, declassified, and safely applied. — Disclosure, pp. 14, 15, 567. See also Dr. Greer’s websites at, and

For full story see book Disclosure and witness videos at Disclosure Project has over 400 government and military witnesses prepared to testify on this subject.

Partial Lunar Eclipse 2010-06-27

The Earth casts a shadow over the moon during a partial lunar eclipse that is observed Saturday, June 26, 2010, in Yogyakarta, Central Java, Indonesia.

Mars may have been 1/3 ocean?

It's possible that a huge ocean covered one-third of the surface of Mars some 3.5 billion years ago, a finding likely to reignite an old argument about that amount of water on the red planet, according to a new report.

The study by the University of Colorado at Boulder is the first to integrate multiple data sets of river deltas, valley networks and topography from a cadre of NASA and European Space Agency orbiting missions of Mars dating back to 2001, the researchers claim.
15 reasons why Mars is one hot, hot, hot planet The river deltas on Mars are of interest to researchers because deltas on Earth rapidly bury organic carbon and other biomarkers of life and are a prime target for future exploration. Most astrobiologists believe any present indications of life on Mars will be discovered in the form of subterranean microorganisms, researchers stated. CU researchers said long-lived oceans may have provided an environment for microbial life to take hold on Mars.
The study implies that ancient Mars probably had an Earth-like water cycle, including precipitation, runoff, cloud formation, and ice and groundwater accumulation, stated CU-Boulder Assistant Professor Brian Hynek who completed the study with lead author CU-Boulder researcher Gaetano Di Achille. A paper on the subject appears in the June 13 issue of Nature Geoscience.

While the notion of a large, ancient ocean on Mars has been debated over the past two decades, the new study provides further support for the idea of a sustained sea on the red planet, Di Achille stated.
More than half of the 52 river delta deposits identified by the CU researchers likely marked the boundaries of the ocean. Twenty-nine of the 52 deltas were connected either to the ancient Mars ocean or to the groundwater table of the ocean and to several large, adjacent lakes, Di Achille said.
Di Achille and Hynek used a geographic information system to map the Martian terrain and conclude the ocean likely would have covered about 36 percent of the planet and contained about 30 million cubic miles, or 124 million cubic kilometers, of water. The amount of water in the ancient ocean would have formed the equivalent of a 1,800-foot deep layer of water spread out over the entire planet, the researchers stated.
Hynek also did a study that found about 40,000 river valleys on Mars. That is about four times the number of river valleys that have previously been identified by scientists, said Hynek.
NASA recently reported findings that furthered the water-on-Mars conundrum. NASA's 'now hibernating Mars rover Spirit spotted rocks scientists say could offer key clues to whether or not life ever did or still does exist on the red planet.
Sprit's Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer Mini-TES instrument found an outcrop of rock rich in what are known as carbonate minerals. Such minerals are crucial to understanding the early climate history of Mars and the related question of whether the planet might once have held life, NASA stated.

The outcrops are very rich in olivine, a volcanic mineral, but they appear to have been soaked in water, NASA stated. It's as if the granular material settled over a preexisting landscape, then the entire stack was flooded with carbonate-rich water, probably from a hydrothermal source.
Water-altered rocks have been found on Mars before but scientists think that water was highly acidic, not conducive to life in general. Acidic water quickly destroys carbonate minerals, as for example vinegar dissolves hard water deposits. Thus finding outcrops of carbonate rock shows that the hydrothermal water at Comanche was liquid, chemically neutral, and abundant, NASA stated.

New Theory for Life's First Energy Source

An obscure compound known as pyrophosphite could have been a source of energy that allowed the first life on Earth to form, scientists now say.
From the tiniest bacteria to the complex human body, all living beings require an energy-transporting molecule called ATP to survive. Often likened to a "rechargeable battery," ATP stores chemical energy in a form that can be used by organic matter.
"You need enzymes to make ATP, and you need ATP to make enzymes," said researcher Terence Kee of the University of Leeds in England. "The question is: Where did energy come from before either of these two things existed? We think that the answer may lie in simple molecules, such as pyrophosphate, which is chemically very similar to ATP, but has the potential to transfer energy without enzymes."
Obscure but important Prior theories for how life emerged from mere chemistry have considered that a similar but separate compound known as pyrophosphate was the predecessor to the more complex yet more efficient ATP.
Phosphate has 4 oxygen atoms bound to a central phosphorus atom, and is present in all living cells. When two phosphates combine and lose a water molecule, they form pyrophosphate.
Pyrophosphite, on the other hand, is rarely encountered, chemist Robert Shapiro at New York University told Livescience. "Even in my Google search for it, I got the query: 'Don't you mean pyrophosphate?'"
The presence of "one or two thorny little problems" with its rival molecule [pyrophosphate] had left some unanswered questions, Kee said in a telephone interview.
The two main problems were that pyrophosphate didn't seem to be available in significant amounts in the geological mineral record, and it doesn't react well without catalysts (which weren't around then), according to Kee.
On the other hand, Kee's team has found that pyrophosphite would be "relatively straightforward to prepare from minerals that are known to exist in iron meteorites." The routes to the production of this molecule are simpler than those proposed for pyrophosphate, Kee said.
Though similarly produced through dehydration, and similar in composition except that it has some oxygen atoms replaced by hydrogen, pyrophosphite is rare. Only three pyrophosphite minerals exist, compared with "many phosphate minerals," Kee said.
The chemical's obscurity on Earth is not a sign of its irrelevance. It's highly unstable in today's oxygen-rich environment (meaning it breaks down into other molecules rapidly) but is a superior catalyst (jump-starter) for certain chemical reactions, Kee said, citing as-yet-unpublished evidence.
Lateral thinking Kee called the altered theory "more a lateral thought process" than a "new concept."

"It is as little strange that pyrophosphite and its ability to act as a phosphorus-transfer agent have been known for some time but it has not been proposed previously as being of any pre-biotic significance," he said. "I suspect because noone had considered the need for it or that it may have been accessible pre-biotically."

Interestingly, machines that manufacture artificial DNA for experiments regularly use pyrophophite in their assembly process, Shapiro said.
The researchers detail their theory on pyrophosphate as life's first energy source in a recent issue of the journal Chemical Communications.

More Active Sun Means Nasty Solar Storms Ahead

The sun is about to get a lot more active, which could have ill effects on Earth. So to prepare, top sun scientists met Tuesday to discuss the best ways to protect Earth's satellites and other vital systems from the coming solar storms.
Solar storms occur when sunspots on our star erupt and spew out flumes of charged particles that can damage power systems. The sun's activity typically follows an 11-year cycle, and it looks to be coming out of a slump and gearing up for an active period.

"The sun is waking up from a deep slumber, and in the next few years we expect to see much higher levels of solar activity," said Richard Fisher, head of NASA's Heliophysics Division. "At the same time, our technological society has developed an unprecedented sensitivity to solar storms. The intersection of these two issues is what we're getting together to discuss."
Fisher and other experts met at the Space Weather Enterprise Forum, which took place in Washington, D.C., at the National Press Club.
Bad news for gizmos

People of the 21st century rely on high-tech systems for the basics of daily life. But smart power grids, GPS navigation, air travel, financial services and emergency radio communications can all be knocked out by intense solar activity.
A major solar storm could cause twenty times more economic damage than Hurricane Katrina, warned the National Academy of Sciences in a 2008 report, "Severe Space Weather Events—Societal and Economic Impacts."
Luckily, much of the damage can be mitigated if managers know a storm is coming. That's why better understanding of solar weather, and the ability to give advance warning, is especially important.
Putting satellites in 'safe mode' and disconnecting transformers can protect electronics from damaging electrical surges.
"Space weather forecasting is still in its infancy, but we're making rapid progress," said Thomas Bogdan, director of the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Space Weather Prediction Center in Boulder, Colo.
Eyes on the sun
NASA and NOAA work together to manage a fleet of satellites that monitor the sun and help to predict its changes.
A pair of spacecraft called STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) is stationed on opposite sides of the sun, offering a combined view of 90 percent of the solar surface. In addition, SDO (the Solar Dynamics Observatory), which just launched in February 2010, is able to photograph solar active regions with unprecedented spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. Also, an old satellite called the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), which launched in 1997, is still chugging along monitoring winds coming off the sun. And there are dozens more dedicated to solar science.
"I believe we're on the threshold of a new era in which space weather can be as influential in our daily lives as ordinary terrestrial weather." Fisher said. "We take this very seriously indeed."


Top Secret Document of CNI(The spanish CIA):Proxima Centauri inhabited!(

a) Origin and characteristics: Two alien races have their origins in the planetary system of Alpha Centauri A, located nearly 4.3 light years from Earth, is a star much like our sun.We know their colony at Tau Ceti at 11.5 light years. The first race is a species almost identical to humans and they live in three of the six planets of its system.Their level of technology has allowed them to place the planets in their system on a single orbit allowing their colonization through optimal conditions.They speak a language similar to Turkish by pronunciation.On some occasions they have not hesitated to attack the interceptors. This is an advanced form of animals they have sex (male and female) and they behave like mammals. Their life expectancy must be counted in centuries and perhaps thousands of years, this is probably due to their advanced technology. This civilization is a democracy like that of Earth. But governments are not individual but to have an elective process by [???].They maintain a federation composed of 3 clans governing the 3 planets they inhabit.The second race is a plant form extremely intelligent, created by genetic engineering by the first, but despite this she has a natural appearance anthropomorphic.Its height is less than 1.5 m and its skin has a dark green pigmentation. Its morphology is exactly the stories of abductees who gave the name "gray" in the slang UFO. They behave in a manner totally gregarious with respect to the first race.They are used as labor and logistics to pilot spaceships. b Logistics. It is currently estimated at more than 800 [???] studying the planet. Housed in 7 major carriers with a total population estimated at more than 1,900 alien entities. Since 1927 they would have a logistics base between the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud. Based on currently accepted calculations, made by Swiss experts taking as reference the waves and increased logistics visitors, we come to the conclusion that they would be located at a distance between 200 and 210 AU from our sun. They use an energy source based on antimatter, and they realize long interstellar travel, at least to a radius of 60 light years from their sun. About their weapons, they have only used one that causes a temperature of 7,000 degrees Celsius on the metal interceptors. But we know they have a type of antimatter bomb.

c) Objectives. The motivations of extraterrestrial visitors seem justified by the exclusive study of our planet. However, on some occasions they have interfered directly in the development of events. In Russia and in India they came to disable nuclear warheads that were intended for testing, which was interpreted as a message of warning. On other occasions they have been derived interceptors after they have flown over the skies that were closed because of military decisions motivated by various events. These acts were qualified by statements such as direct provocations. However, the fact that they possess a weapon as powerful as antimatter bombs, and not to be used, supports the general impression that their mission is purely scientific.

d) Leaders and information revealed. As partners with the Earth visitors have used since the first contact in 1967 in Ohio, a man and two women Even if they act as ambassadors, it would seem they have the ability to take certain decisions. A current study has suggested that the trio could represent the three clan leaders. Compared to humans they seem to have 35 years. They use the names respectively Adjuk, and Mields Solja. In total there were 7 contacts in a period of 36 years, which seems to prove the lack of interest in their culture to maintain contact with ours. Even if it was discussed to analyze the reasons and causes of these contacts, such as nuclear explosions or the beginning of armed conflicts on Earth, we are not able to find a satisfactory reason that could explain these contacts. During the meeting in 1972 with the United States, they revealed some information on their civilization and history, but they were very reluctant to clarify anything about their technology. They confirm only the possession of bombs already cited antimatter and the existence of a logistics base between the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud. Regarding the technology that allows them to travel, in 1990 they revealed the United States they were traveling at incredible speeds and that it was time they had come to reverse the effects of relativity and gravity in accelerations. A trip from their star to our currently lasts less than one terrestrial day. Regarding the logistics base they have in our system, this could be explained by the existence of abundant minerals in orbit that they use to build their ships."




Jupiter collision 'was asteroid'

The spot was first seen by an amateur Australian astronomer Anthony Wesley An object that hit Jupiter last year with a force equivalent to a few thousand nuclear bombs, which left it with a scar the size of Pacific Ocean was probably an asteroid, say astronomers.

Images of the "bruise" captured by the Hubble telescope show the aftermath of an asteroid striking a planet.

It could provide clues about what might happen if a similar object hit Earth.

The spot was first seen in 2009 by an Australian amateur astronomer.

The astronomer in question, Anthony Wesley, has recently taken another striking image of an bright fireball hitting the gas giant. Scientists believe it to be a meteoroid - a small particle of space debris.

A team of scientists described in the Astrophysical Journal Letters how they compared the 2009 Hubble images with those of scars left on Jupiter by a comet in 1994.

Jupiter impacts were thought to be quite rare. After the latest collision with a comet called P/Shoemaker-Levy 9, or SL9, astronomers didn't expect any other strikes for at least several hundred years.

'A surprise'
That is why some 500m-wide space rock plunging into the gas giant's atmosphere was rather unexpected, said astronomer Heidi Hammel of the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado, who led the study.

"This solitary event caught us by surprise," she said.

"We can only see the aftermath of the impact, but fortunately we do have the 1994 Hubble observations that captured the full range of impact phenomena, including the nature of the objects from pre-impact observations."

Dr Hammel's team used the Hubble telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 to zoom in on the blemish near the Jupiter's southern pole and captured several sharp ultraviolet images.
Astronomers spotted a flash on Jupiter - possibly a meteoroid striking the planet The scientists compared the pictures with those of the scars left by SL9 15 years earlier and saw important differences between the two impacts.

Most importantly, they found no "halo" around the latest collision site. A comet would have generated a halo of fine dust as it impacted the surface.

The clues helped them to conclude that the mystery object was probably not a dusty comet but a solid space rock that perhaps came from a nearby asteroid belt.

Agustin Sanchez-Lavega of the University of the Basque Country in Bilbao, Spain called Jupiter a "natural laboratory" to see what might happen to our planet in the event of a similar collision.

"It would be a catastrophe," he said.

"The Jupiter impact produced a pattern of debris some 5,000km long and 2,800 km wide - half the size of the Earth. And even if the response of the Earth atmosphere is different from that of Jupiter, entire continents could be destroyed."

Amateur astronomers

The scientist also commented on the latest flash spotted on Jupiter by Anthony Wesley and another amateur, Christopher Go from the Philippines.

It is believed to be the very first image of a meteoroid hitting a planet.

This also shows that amateur astronomers now have the necessary high quality technology to capture such events that only last a few seconds.

"We cannot devote the Hubble space telescope or other telescopes to observe Jupiter regularly, it is impossible," he said.

"And the amateurs make a very good survey of what is happening there, contributing to our database."

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